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An additional five states do not have a P-16 or P-20 council, but have consolidated most or all governance of public education in one or two agencies or boards who essentially perform the function of a P-16 or P-20 council.The names of these governing agencies or boards are designated with an asterisk (*).2.Coordinating body: The coordinating body refers to the lead agency or entity that serves a facilitating function among those agencies and individuals participating on a P-16 or P-20 council. Membership: An average of 22 members serve on P-16/P-20 councils in the states, with membership ranging from five members in Missouri to 52 members in California. Year started: The nation's first P-16 council was created in Georgia in 1996 by then-governor Miller.
Being a teacher is about making positive, lasting impressions and indelible marks.As of May 2008, the council includes 36 voting members.As established in the executive order, membership, at a minimum, must include the following: Early Learning (Min.Some councils have focused on a single issue, while others have taken on a large reform agenda. State has P-16/P-20 performance goals: Sixteen states (either through or independently of the P-16 or P-20 council) have established specific numerical goals for P-16 or P-20 performance indicators. Policy changes brought about by P-16/P-20 coordinating body: This database indicates where a P-16/P-20 council's recommendations, active support or other efforts as a group (rather than by individual council members independent of a council subcommittee or the council as a whole) provided the foundation for changes in legislation, state board rules or other major shifts in education practice (i.e., development and implementation of a longitudinal data system).Methodology: ECS performed an initial search of statutes, regulations and executive orders.In Montana and Utah, councils were created by a board of education resolution.It should be noted that in many states, an executive order or legislation has either made permanent or reconstituted a council initially created through a voluntary agreement.Where a newer council with new members and a new agenda has taken the place of a previously created council, the database reflects the year in which the current council was created.5. Made permanent by executive order or statute: Councils have been established by executive order in 11 states, by statute in 10 states, and through voluntary agreements in 14 states.Scope of the initiative (P-16, P-20, etc.): Nineteen councils define their scope as P-16, while 16 councils propose a P-20 scope. In two states (Delaware and Louisiana), councils were established by executive order and later codified through legislation.This database indicates the method of creation of the current P-16 or P-20 council in each state. Advisory only or has authority: Councils in 31 states are advisory only, while councils in three states (North Carolina, Oregon and Tennessee) have administrative authority over state programs or the authority to require change from other agencies.The power of the P-16/P-20 council is unclear in four states, as of May 2008. Source of council's funding: Twenty-one councils receive state funds (funds to support the council's work are built into participating agencies' budgets or the council receives a legislative appropriation).